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December 21, 2017

Notice

Holiday Notice

Our office will be closed during the following time period due to the year-end and the New Years.

【Holiday Period】
December 28th, 2017 (Thu) ~ January 4th, 2018 (Thu)

During this time, please contact us using the inquiry form (link below).
A representative will respond as soon as possible upon our return on January 5th, 2018 (Fri).

We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause, and thank you for your understanding.
We wish you a wonderful holiday season.

Click here to make an inquiry

December 13, 2017

Notice

Product Release: Solar Powered LED Street Light “ecoAvenue LITE”

December 13, 2017 – Kikukawa released the following press release in Japanese.

-Summary of the Release-
KIKUKAWA, a bespoke architectural metalworker, has announced that a new solar-powered LED street light “ecoAvenue LITE” will be available from January 2018. The streamlined design makes this model affordable while maintaining the functionality of the “ecoAvenue series”, Kikukawa’s line of solar-powered LED street light.

Click here for the press release in PDF (Japanese):
2017.12.13 Kikukawa news release ecoAvenue lite

December 12, 2017

Notice

Season’s Greetings from Kikukawa

As season’s greetings and to express our gratitude for another successful year, Kikukawa has launched a special e-greetings page that will be available for a limited time.

The page features a selection of metal-crafting technologies that have played key roles in shaping creative designs, and photos of our most notable projects.

2017 Kikukawa GreetingsClick here or the banner above to jump to the e-greetings site.

Metal-crafting technologies and finishes introduced are fiber laser welding, Furumi (sulfurized) finish, expanded metal, incremental forming, mirror finished panels, and bright dip anodized aluminium finish.

From all of us at Kikukawa, we hope you enjoy the page and that you have a wonderful holiday season.

November 21, 2017

Media

The Daily Engineering and Construction News

An article regarding KIKUKAWA digitizing its accounts payable in collaboration with financial technology (fintech) venture company, Tranzax, was featured on The Daily Engineering and Construction News (The Nikkan Kensetsu-Kogyo Shimbun, Ltd.), a Japanese nationwide construction trade paper, on November 20th.

This is one of the first examples for a medium sized metalworker to adopt a financial technology solution. The article focuses on the benefits such as the simplification of accounting work, and acceleration of cash conversion for the suppliers.

For more information on The Daily Engineering and Construction News (Japanese):
http://www.decn.co.jp/

For more information on Tranzax (Japanese):
http://tranzax.co.jp/

 

November 21, 2017

Media

ArchDaily Features Bloomberg’s European HQ

KIKUKAWA was featured in an article on the ArchDaily website regarding Bloomberg’s new European headquarters in London.

2017.10.25 Arch Daily, Article on Bloomberg's European Headquarters

A first-view of the Bloomberg Headquarters in London as featured on ArchDaily.

ArchDaily is a website that provides architectural news, project information and other related articles for architects and designers.

The article features the new European Bloomberg headquarters in London, highlighting the outstanding standards of sustainability of the building and the design which pays homage to the history of the site.

In collaboration with the designers, contractors and other manufacturers, Kikukawa contributed to the project through the fabrication of various bronze products that exhibit our metal craftsmanship.

From the series of large-scale bronze façade fins to the interior bronze ramps, roughly 43,397㎡ of bronze was used for this project. The bespoke shapes were created by combining cutting-edge metal-crafting technology, such as FSW (Friction Stir Welding) and fiber laser welding, and traditional craftsmanship, such as the FURUMI (sulfurized) finish.

To find out more about the article, click here.

To find out more about Kikukawa’s technology, click here.

October 24, 2017

Notice

Email Newsletter Launch

KIKUKAWA is pleased to announce the launch of an email newsletter.

Through it, our readers will be informed of our projects, technologies and other newsworthy items.

To subscribe or to provide feedback, please contact us here.

October 24, 2017

Release

Selected as a Government Subsidized Company to Promote Green HVAC System, “R Air-con”

November 24, 2017 – Kikukawa released the following press release in Japanese.

-Summary of the Release-
KIKUKAWA, a bespoke architectural metalworker, was selected as a government subsidized company, by the Ministry of the Environment, as part of a project that aims to accelerate the adoption of L2-Tech (Leading Low carbon) technology. The selected product, radiant HVAC system “R Air-con”, was released this summer. With this selection, Kikukawa will collect additional verifying data and continue its work to improve the product.

For more information on “R Air-con”:
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/ecosia-and-green-products/

Click here for the press release in PDF (Japanese):
2017.10.24 Kikukawa news release l2tech

October 23, 2017

Notice

Anniversary Holiday Notice

KIKUKAWA will be closed for the anniversary of our foundation on November 1st, 2017.

During this time, please contact us using the inquiry form (link below).

We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause and thank you for your understanding.

Click the link below to make an inquiry.
Contact Us

September 22, 2017

Media

Yousetsu News (Welding News)

An article regarding KIKUKAWA’s welding technology was featured on “Yousetsu News (Welding News)” on September 19th.

The piece highlights how the improvement of the quality of the weld adds to the beauty of the architecture. Featured technology and projects include “fiber laser welding machine”, “FSW (Friction Stir Welding machine)” and Shiki Juraku.

“Yousetsu News (Welding News)” is a weekly Japanese newspaper that covers latest updates surrounding welding news in the fabrication industry.

For more information on KIKUKAWA’s welding technology, click here:
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/technologys/ 

To make an inquiry, click here:
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/contact/

For more information on Yousetsu News (Welding News), click here (Japanese site):
http://www.sanpo-pub.co.jp/yn/

August 1, 2017

Notice

Summer (Obon) Holiday Notice

Our office will be closed during the following time period in observance of Obon*.

 

【Summer (Obon) Holiday Period】

August 9th (Wed) ~ August 16th, 2017 (Wed)

 

During this time, please contact us using the inquiry form (link below).

A representative will respond as soon as possible upon our return on August 17th, 2017 (Thu).

 

We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause and thank you for your understanding.

 

Click the link below to make an inquiry

Contact Us

 

*Obon – A Japanese Buddhist practice that honors the spirits of the ancestors and is one of the three biggest holidays in Japan.

July 19, 2017

Notice

Stainless Steel Finish Samples Book (2017 Edition)

A revised edition of KIKUKAWA’s Stainless Steel Finish Samples Book (2017 Edition) is now available. The new collection features various finishes on the material that we can actualise.

< 2017 Edition of KIKUKAWA Stainless Steel Finish Samples Book >

Our collection ranges from classic finishes such as “mirror polished”, “hairline” to our bespoke “Silky Blast”, to the colourful “KC-Colour” finish.

To find out more about the finish samples, click below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/metal-finish-samples-stainless-steel/

To download a PDF version of this sample book, click below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/materials-and-brochures/

For more information or to request a sample, click below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/contact/

July 2, 2017

Release

Product Release: City Connect “Light Station”

July 3, 2017 – Kikukawa released the following press release in Japanese.

-Summary of the Release-
KIKUKAWA, a bespoke architectural metalworker, has announced that a new solar LED street light, City Connect “Light Station”, will be available from July 2017. This is an independently sourced solar powered street light with a phone charging station. An informational board can be added as an option.

For more information on “Light Station”:
Link to “ecosia and Green Products”

Click here for the press release in PDF (Japanese):
2017.07.03 KIKUKAWA News Release Light Station

June 26, 2017

Release

Product Release: “R Air-con” Radiant HVAC System

June 26, 2017 – Kikukawa released the following press release in Japanese.

-Summary of the Release-
KIKUKAWA, a bespoke architectural metalworker has announced the launch of a new product, “R Air-con”. The radiant HVAC system will be available for purchase in July.

For more information on “R Air-con”:
Link to “ecosia and Green Products”

Click here to download the press release in PDF (Japanese):
2017.06.26 KIKUKAWA NewsRelease R Air-con

June 19, 2017

Notice

Launch of “ecosia”

As of July 2017, KIKUKAWA has launched a new brand, “ecosia”, that offers comprehensive solutions for greener buildings.

< A rendering of a building renovated with “ecosia” products. >

The brand consists of “SOLAR”, “R Air-con” and “LOUVER”, each offering varying solutions to improve energy efficiency and generate power, from design to installation.

By combining KIKUKAWA’s technology and craftsmanship, the brand offers a series of solutions and products that are both functional and beautiful.

True to our mission, to provide comprehensive solutions to our customers, KIKUKAWA will continue to explore ways to strengthen and expand our services.

This service is available for new and renovation projects.

For more information on “ecosia”, click below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/ecosia-and-green-products/

For a PDF version of the “ecosia” brochure, click below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/materials-and-brochures/

For more information, contact us.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/contact/

June 12, 2017

Media

Welding News or Yousetsu News

An article written by one of KIKUKAWA’s employees in the technical department was featured in the May 30th issue of “Welding News”, or Yousetsu News.

Yousetsu News is a weekly Japanese newspaper that covers latest updates surrounding welding news in the fabrication industry. The article is part of a special feature that covers the latest technology and products regarding welding of Stainless Steel.

KIKUKAWA’s article covers a breadth of information. From explanations of the material, its weldability to the KIKUKAWA’s dealings with stainless steel, our quality control and latest welding equipment such as FSW (Friction Stir Welding) and fiber laser welding machine. It also touches on Custom Metalwork, a new metalwork service that also deals with welding with new technology.

For more information on Custom Metalwork, click here.

For further inquiries, click here.

To jump to the Japanese Welding News (Yousetsu News) website, click here.

June 7, 2017

Notice

Steel Finish Samples Book (2017 Edition)

A revised edition of KIKUKAWA’s Steel Finish Samples Book (2017 Edition) is now available. The new collection features a selection of our galvanized and zinc phosphate coating or bespoke painted finishes that replicates the look of other materials.

< 2017 Edition of KIKUKAWA Steel Finish Samples Book >

< 2017 Edition of KIKUKAWA Steel Finish Samples Book >

The Phozinc line showcases the flowering galvanization effect as well as the differing impressions resulting from the clear coating. Our bespoke paint finishes creates the physique of other materials.

 

To find out more about the finish samples, click below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/metal-finish-samples-steel/

To download a PDF version of this sample book, click below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/materials-and-brochures/ 

For more information or to request a sample, click below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/contact/

June 5, 2017

Notice

Introducing KIKUKAWA’s Renovation Projects

A new page introducing a selection of KIKUKAWA’s renovation projects in Japan has been added.

The selection varies from large scale projects such as interior and/or exterior renovations to smaller projects like panel repair work, installation of PV panels to hinge replacements.

 

<KIKUKAWA’s Renovation Project, Arts Maebashi>

 

By combining our expertise and technology, KIKUKAWA will continue to respond to the needs of our customers in a timely manner.

 

To find out more about Renovation Projects:
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/renovation-projects/

For more information or inquiries, contact us:
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/contact/

June 3, 2017

Notice

Opening Reception for [Japanese Junction in London]

Japanese Junction in London opened on June 1st to join the launch of the London Festival of Architecture.
To celebrate, an opening reception was held at the gallery.

< The crowded gallery during the opening reception for Japanese Junction in London. >

Japanese Junction in London is an architectural exhibition created by emerging architects and architectural designers who studied or worked in Japan. This exhibition will be part of the London Festival of Architecture which is the largest annual festival of its kind held in Europe.

The festival’s theme for this year is “Memory of Home” and the city will be filled with showcases or architects’ proposals for a new lifestyle in the urban context of London.

 

Duration: ~June 30th

Exhibit Location: TOTO Gallery

Related Links:

Japanese Junction in London – http://www.japanesejunctioninlondon.co.uk/

Japanese Junction  – http://japanesejunction.jp/index.html

London Festival of Architecture – http://www.londonfestivalofarchitecture.org/

 

KIKUKAWA is a proud sponsor of Japanese Junction in London.

http://www.kikukawa.com/en/2017/05/23/supportingjapanesejunctioninlondon/

May 23, 2017

Notice

KIKUKAWA Supports [Japanese Junction in London]

KIKUKAWA is a proud sponsor of [Japanese Junction in London], an exhibition that will take part in the London Festival of Architecture.

The [Japanese Junction in London] is an architectural exhibition created by emerging architects and architectural designers who studied or worked in Japan. This exhibition will be part of the London Festival of Architecture which is the largest annual architecture festival held in Europe.

< Leaflet for “Japanese Junction in London” for 2017 >

 

Duration: June 1st to June 30th

Exhibit Location: TOTO Gallery

 

Related Website:

Japanese Junction in London- http://www.japanesejunctioninlondon.co.uk/

Japanese Junction- http://japanesejunction.jp/index.html

London Festival of Architecture- http://www.londonfestivalofarchitecture.org/

 

KIKUKAWA will continue to support the efforts and works of Japanese architects within and outside of Japan as part of its continuing contribution to the architectural industry.

April 24, 2017

Notice

Bronze Finish Samples Book (2017 Edition)

A revised edition of KIKUKAWA’s Bronze Finish Samples Book (2017 Edition) is now available. This is a collection of selected finishes on copper alloys that KIKUKAWA can actualise.

< 2017 Edition of KIKUKAWA Bronze Finish Samples Book >

In this edition, we have added finishes that recreate the luxurious patinated surfaces such as FURUMI (sulfurized) finish or patina green finish.

To find out more about the finish samples, click the link below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/metal-finish-samples-bronze/

To download a PDF version of this sample book, jump to the page below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/materials-and-brochures/

For more information or to request a sample, click the link below.
http://www.kikukawa.com/en/contact/

April 18, 2017

Notice

Official Launch of an Industry-Academia-Government Collaboration Research Project

KIKUKAWA is announcing the official launch of a metalworking research project in collaboration with METI (Kanto Bureau of Economy, Trade, and Industry, a regional branch of Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry) and Fukui University.

< De Beers Ginza Building: Exterior Stainless Steel Panels fabricated with 3D Metal Forming Technology >

This launch comes in response to the confirmation of the receipt of a government grant offered by SME (Organization for Small and Medium Enterprises and Regional Innovation, JAPAN) that is overseen by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry and partly under co-jurisdiction with the Japanese Ministry of Finance.

Since 2011, KIKUKAWA has been researching for ways to ease the fabrication process of double curved panels. This was in response to the increasing demand to fabricate double curved products in a more efficient manner as the international architectural designs have become more complex with the development of 3D CADs.

One of the difficulties with 3D metal forming is that it traditionally requires 6~10 times more manufacturing lead-time and cost than its counterpart, the 2D panels, as fabrication relies on a seasoned metalwork expert and/or press forging with dies.

This research hopes to establish an automated die-less 3D metal forming technology that could fabricate a wide variety of small lot custom-made large sized metal products. This innovative research, said to be the first of its kind ran by a bespoke architectural metalwork provider, is planned to be completed in 2019.

For more information on KIKUKAWA’s 3D metal forming technology, click here.

April 18, 2017

Release

Collaboration Research Project Launches

April 18, 2017 – Kikukawa released the following press release in Japanese.

-Summary of the Release –
KIKUKAWA, a bespoke architectural metalworker has announced the launch of a metalworking research project in collaboration with METI (Kanto Bureau of Economy, Trade, and Industry – a regional branch of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) and Fukui University. This research hopes to establish an automated dieless 3D metal forming technology that could fabricate a wide variety of small lot custom-made large sized metal products.

Click here for the PDF version (Japanese):
2017.04.18 KIKUKAWA News Release 3D Metal Forming Research Project Launches

April 7, 2017

Notice

New Employees and Vietnamese Trainees Join KIKUKAWA

On April 2017, four new employees and six Vietnamese Trainees joined KIKUKAWA. To commemorate this, a company-wide meeting was held.

<Front Row: KIKUKAWA’s senior management, Back Row: new employees and Vietnamese trainees>

During the meeting, president Utsuno spoke of the KIKUKAWA spirit, “Never Say No,” that allows us to be the pioneering metal architecture specialists we are today. This spirit embodied by our approach, to take on and every challenge, is supported by every individual’s passion and autonomy for one’s job.

We hereby express our warmest welcome to the new employees and trainees. We look forward to working with them.

March 29, 2017

Media

Shoten Kenchiku: Shiki Juraku

The large 3D off-centre pivot gate of Shiki Juraku, was featured in an article in Shoten Kenchiku. The bespoke metal gate that sits at the centre of the hotel was fabricated using dieless NC forming technique.

In the February edition of Shoten Kenchiku, Shiki Juraku’s (Kyoto’s traditional merchants’ housing style hotel) refined look and its unique concept was noted. As photographed at the centre, the bronze sulfurized texture of the gate matches and enhances the luxurious and traditional impression of the hotel. The materialization of this gate relied on dieless NC forming technique that is one of the latest metalwork processing available.

-The Shiki Juraku article featured on Shoten Kenchiku-

The article writes on the concept behind Shiki Juraku, the creation of ten distinct spaces where people can feel they belong. A focus on seasonal pleasures as well as Japanese Omotenashi is highlighted.

KIKUKAWA’s name is mentioned as the bespoke gate installer.

For more information on the bespoke gate of Shiki Juraku, click here.

For more information on the technology used to fabricate the large 3D off-center pivot gate, click here.

March 22, 2017

Release

“Custom Metalwork” Service Begins

March 22, 2017 – Kikukawa released the following press release in Japanese.

-Summary of the Release-
KIKUKAWA, a bespoke architectural metalworker has announced the start of “Custom Metalwork” services. This service opens our metalwork such as cutting, bending and welding to customers outside the realm of architecture.

For more information on Custom Metalwork:
Link to Custom Metalwork

Click here for the PDF version (Japanese):
2017.03.22 KIKUKAWA News Release, Custom Metalwork

March 17, 2017

Notice

Launch of “Custom Metalwork” Service

On April 2017, KIKUKAWA will begin a new service, Custom Metalwork that allows further access to its cutting-edge machineries and highly skilled craftsmanship. This service opens our metalwork such as cutting, bending and welding to customers outside the realm of architecture.

Since its foundation, KIKUKAWA has been actively incorporating new technologies and machineries to provide one-of-a-kind metal products. In doing so, it became home to a number of metalwork industry leading machineries such as Friction Stir-Welding machine (FSW), fiber-laser welding machine and 8m bending machine. This, combined with its expertise, allows KIKUKAWA to answer unusual metalwork requirements such as welding of different materials, minimal weld distortions, extra large or over-sized fabrications, complex shapes and double curved panels.

-KIKUKAWA’s Factory-

Custom Metalwork provides these metalwork processes as a service and is open to non-products including but not limited to small lots, sample fabrications or research.

For more information about the Custom Metalwork Services, visit here.

If you have a complex project or are facing unique metalwork requirements, contact us here.

February 1, 2017

Notice

[Louver System] Patent Obtained to Develop an Innovative Louver

On December 12th 2016, KIKUKAWA obtained a Japanese patent for the invention of a new “Louver System.”

Patent Overview:

-Name: Louver System

-Patent Number: 6061781

-Date of Receipt: 2016/12/22

Summary of the Invention:

-Reduces heat gain while allowing efficient control of natural light

-Reduces operating energy use and running cost of the building

-Designed to be both stylish and practical

-KIKUKAWA’s Louver System-

There is a growing environmental awareness in today’s world. In architecture, the responsibility to create more green and sustainable buildings is gaining momentum for architects and building owners.

Given this, KIKUKAWA worked with Dr. Jürgen Koch to invent a movable louver system, innovative in design and function that could be installed for new and existing projects.

-The Kochs-

One of the ways to increase the energy efficiency of a building is to install louvers outside of the windows. This is where the buildings are susceptible to the effects of incoming heat gain and sunlight. The exterior louvers could help control this before it enters the building thereby increasing the energy efficiency as well as reducing the installation and the running cost of the building.

Other existing louvers were able to control sunlight and heat gain; however it was not able to concurrently allow natural light to fill the room. With existing models, the building would be more energy efficient and the AC costs would be reduced, but the lighting costs would not be affected. KIKUKAWA’s new louver system addresses this problem. The design of the new system differs at the top and bottom and because both parts are movable, it allows heat gain reduction as well as efficient sunlight control depending on the intensity of insulation and the location of the sun.

KIKUKAWA is currently working on merchandising this invention. Please inquire for more details. KIKUKAWA will continue to invent and provide high-quality and high-value environmental products.

January 5, 2017

Notice

Fabrication of “Hounou-date”

Every year, KIKUKAWA fabricates pentagon shields, “Hounou-date”, to pray for the safety and prosperity in the upcoming year and to exemplify our New Year’s resolution. On the shield, there are three objects that denote the Japanese Kanji character for water, 水. Each object symbolizes our prayer: the “sword” to ward off evil, the “sickle” to bring good harvest, and the “key” for prosperity.

The root of this tradition lies with Japanese blacksmiths fabricating “Hounou-date” as a talisman against fire. By dedicating a shield with a water kanji at the beginning of the year, the craftsmen cleansed their workplace and prayed for another safe year.

KIKUKAWA still honours this practice as a sign of respect for artisan handiwork. To hone and pass on our craftsmanship, the fabrication of the shield is carried out by younger members and Vietnamese trainees. The chosen materials and finishes are those that were most commonly used or that became the topic of conversation as a reminder of our company’s founding principles and spirit.

This year, three shields were fabricated.

  • Sulfurized bronze with the water kanji in mirror polished stainless steel
  • Sulfurized bronze with the water kanji in mirror polished then Silky blasted stainless steel
  • -Bright dip anodized Aluminium with the water kanji in hairline or vibration finish

 

Hounou-date

 

The sulfurized bronze finish is a classic in Japanese architecture, but is increasingly becoming popular overseas. Our most recent project was Shiki-Juraku, a Kyo-machiya style hotel.

The bright dip anodized Aluminium is a highly reflective finish that emulates the sheen of stainless steel. The Sumida Hokusai Museum drew attention last year as the first architectural project in Japan to employ this material as an exterior.

These shields are displayed on the walls of our factory. Please take a look should you ever have a chance to pay a visit.

December 14, 2016

Notice

Kyoto’s New Luxurious Machiya Hotel, Shiki Juraku Opens

On December 1st 2016, Kyoto’s new Machiya style (Kyoto’s traditional merchants’ housing) hotel, Shiki Juraku opened.

The bespoke metal gate was designed by Tsuyoshi Tane of DGT Architects.

shikijuraku_gate2

KIKUKAWA fabricated this bespoke off centre pivot door with technology such as metal spinning, incremental forming and sulfurization. The finished product blends into the refined and luxurious Kyo-Machiya style.

Our specialty lies with metal, but as a company that provides a comprehensive solution, we also took part in fabricating and installation of the foundational and wooden work.

For more details on this project, please refer to the link below.

Shiki Juraku

April 7, 2016

Notice

Visit by Lord Norman Foster

Lord Foster, of the internationally recognized Foster + Partners studio for architecture and integrated design, toured KIKUKAWA’s factory on March 28th, 2017 as pa2011rt of his visit to Japan.

This visitation follows Lord Foster’s wish to visit our factory, having been KIKUKAWA’s business partner for some time.

Despite the limitations in time, Lord Foster was able to view our facility, various samples and the fabrication process of the products. He was also able to see the mock-up and the fabrication of his ongoing project.

With the actual technology, craftsmanship and product in front of him, Lord Foster showed great interest, asked various questions while he felt the metal with his hands. He shared his impressions, saying, “I saw how the skilled manual work of craftsmen and cutting edge machinery was fused to produce these wonderful products. I didn’t have much time this visit, but I would like to take a closer look at the factory another day.”

< Lord Foster looking up at the mock-up that is twice his size. >

At the same time, Lord Foster gifted a book, “Building with History” by Paul Goldberger. On the first page was a hand-written message, “for your great tradition of crafting metal”.

< The first page of “Building with History” with Lord Foster’s message and signature. >

KIKUKAWA will continue to advance its technology and hone its craftsmanship to respond to the needs of industry leading architects of our time.

< President Yoshihiko Utsuno, Lord Norman Foster, and General Manager for Overseas Division. >

November 12, 2015

Notice

The Cathay Pacific Lounge (Tokyo International Airport)

古美仕上げ-thumb-400x266-1516

An article regarding our work was published in “Copper & Brass”, a publication of the Japan Copper Development Association.

Our unique “FURUMI” finish was used to create the effect of aged bronze in new bronze material. We fused our surface roughing technology and sulfurized technology to create a deep, sophisticated finish.